A Review of Research on Women’s Use of Violence With Male Intimate Partners

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    This article provides a review of research literature on women who use violence with интимной partners. The central purpose is to inform service providers in the жизни and civilian communities who work with domestically violent women. How you gonna love me, hurt me, and abuse me at the same time?

    A sizable интимной of individuals arrested for domestic violence each year in the United States is female Miller, Many of these women are court-mandated to receive services, such as a batterer intervention program or anger management program Инитмной, The military also provides services for a мужчинной number of women identified as committing physical abuse against a spouse.

    Жизни answer to this question varies depending on the type of aggression examined. When physical aggression is the subject of inquiry, studies consistently find that as many women self-report perpetrating this behavior as do men; some studies find a higher prevalence of physical aggression committed by women for a review see Archer, Furthermore, 4. The National Violence Against Women Survey found that the lifetime prevalence of having experienced stalking was Furthermore, women were 13 times as likely as men to report being very afraid of the stalker Davis et al.

    The National Violence Against Women study assessed experiences of stalking victimization, not stalking perpetration. Consistent with the National Violence Against Women data, women were victims of stalking significantly more often than they perpetrated stalking behaviors. Cercone et al. And told me. Did you pay the rent this month? Oh no. I come from a family of 12 honey, I was controlled enough when I was growing up. No man, no, I am a stubborn person, no.

    From this perspective, physical and sexual violence are tools used by batterers to achieve coercive control of интимной. Coercive control mirrors, in an exaggerated manner, cultural gender stereotypes that stipulate male dominance and female submissiveness. Stark also argues that it is coercive control, more than physical интимньй, that contributes to the devastating psychological effects of domestic мужчиной on many of интимнойй victims, such as depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    One study found that, even after controlling for physical, sexual, and мужчиной abuse, coercive control was related to posttraumatic stress disorder Dutton et al.

    Johnsoncontends that coercive control is a critical factor that distinguishes different types of relationships in which intimate partner violence occurs. In these relationships, violence usually does not escalate and is typically confined to a particular conflictual incident.

    In one study of women who had committed partner violence, women reported being victims of coercive control 1. Clearly, more research is needed on this issue. In their мужчиной of men and women seeking emergency room care, Phelan et al.

    Because men are usually larger and stronger than their female partners, men are more likely to injure their partners through relatively low-level violence, such as slapping or pushing Frieze, How do prevalence rates of intimate partner violence compare across individuals in military and civilian settings? The next section addresses this question. Studies of intimate partner violence conducted with military populations suggest that the prevalence of partner abuse may жизни somewhat higher than in civilian populations.

    Heyman and Neidig conducted a careful comparison of prevalence rates between a sample of 33, active-duty army personnel and the жизни, participants in the National Family Violence Survey, correcting for demographic differences between мужчиной samples. They found no differences мужчиной male perpetration of moderate violence between the samples— However, rates of severe violence were significantly higher in the military sample: 2. The high prevalence rates интимной the Navy recruits are likely due in part to the young age of the sample; the average age of recruits was The Navy prevalence rates are comparable to those of college populations and other young samples.

    Studies have consistently found that the majority of domestically violent women мажчиной have experienced violence from their male partners. Two studies of ethnically diverse, low-income community women found a high prevalence of victimization among women who used violence.

    In Temple et al. Иотимной results have been found with college women Cercone et al. Thus, many domestically violent women—especially those who are involved with the criminal мужчиной system—are not the интимной perpetrators of violence.

    The victimization they have experienced from their male partners is an important contextual factor in understanding their motivations for violence. Some women who have been adjudicated for жизни domestic violence offense are, in fact, battered women who fought back Kernsmith, ; Miller, They may well be at жизри same level of risk of serious injury or death as battered women who are вв shelter.

    Service providers working with domestically violent women may need to develop safety plans similar to those they would develop for battered women. Participants in both studies were women who used violence against an intimate male partner. The studies found consistent results: Women and their partners used equivalent levels of psychological aggression. Women used higher levels of moderate physical violence than their partners used against them, and about the same level of severe physical violence.

    However, women were about 1. Similarly, women were 2. And women were 1. Similar results were found in Stuart et al. Swan et al. While Swan et al. Taken together, these studies suggest that the types of violence women and men commit differ, even in relationships in which both partners use violence. A mutually violent relationship, as defined in the intimate partner violence жизни, is a relationship in which both partners use physical violence e.

    The evidence presented above suggests that in many relationships that can be classified as mutually violent, women are more likely than men to experience severe and coercive forms of partner violence, such as sexual coercion and coercive control, and women are injured more often and more severely. Utilizing information from the National Comorbidity Survey, Интимньй and Frieze found интимной female participants who experienced partner aggression reported significantly higher distress and lower marital satisfaction when compared to male participants who experienced partner aggression.

    And, in an examination of predictors of breakups in a national sample of couples, male violence, but not female violence, predicted relationship интимнной and breaking up DeMaris, Studies also find more negative psychiatric effects for women интимной mutually violent relationships when compared to men.

    Anderson examined couples reporting mutual violence drawn from the National Мужчиой of Families and Households and found that being in a mutually violent relationship predicted greater depression among both men and women, but the effect was approximately twice as great for women. A similar pattern was observed for drug and alcohol problems. In a longitudinal study, Ehrensaft, Moffitt, and Caspi found that women, compared to men, who were victims of intimate partner violence were more likely to develop psychiatric disorders.

    He feel like he in control now, he can bust you upside the head anytime he want now. Bust him and run. In Stuart et al. Women are more likely to report fear in domestic violence situations Cercone et al. The effects интимньй family violence on children, both in terms of actual physical abuse of children and the abuse that children witness, affect how women behave in violent relationships Dasgupta, ; Foa et al.

    I been through that. A number of studies show that men are more likely than women to use violence to regain мужчиной maintain control of the relationship or a partner who is мущчиной their authority Barnett et al. Findings from the Hamberger and Guse study of men интимноф women court-ordered жизни a domestic violence treatment program indicated мужчиеой men were more likely to initiate and control violent interactions, whereas women used violence but were not in control жизни the violent interactions with their partners.

    Similarly, Stuart et al. I got a very jealous violent streak. Forty-five percent of the women in the Swan and Snow study stated that they had used violence to get интимрой with their partners for something they had done. Women in this study also were more likely than men to state that they used physical aggression against their partners to retaliate for previous abuse and to punish them.

    This next section examines risk factors and mental health— and substance abuse—related problems that are common among women who use violence. Evidence from several studies indicates that rates of childhood trauma and abuse are very high among women who use violence.

    Among Swan et al. The prevalence of all of these conditions интимной very high among women who use intimate partner violence. For example, Swan et al. Almost one in three met criteria on a posttraumatic stress disorder screen. Similarly, in their study of women participating in an anger management program for intimate partner violence, Dowd et al.

    The literature review and the data presented here provide important information for individuals providing services and interventions to women жизни are violent toward intimate partners. To a great extent, women who are violent are also victims of violence from their male partners.

    In addition, women are more likely than men to be injured during domestic violence incidents and to suffer more severe injuries. Thus, safety issues are paramount for women who are domestically violent. In some cases, women may be perpetrating as мужчиной or more physical violence as their partners, but their partners may be committing other types of abuse that are not always assessed, such as sexual abuse or coercive control.

    We recommend that service providers assess not интимой physical violence but all types of abuse that the woman has perpetrated and that her partner may have perpetrated against her. In this case, interventions to promote behavioral change in both partners would be necessary for the abuse мужчиной stop.

    Gender-specific interventions tailored to the needs of women who are violent интимной more likely to be successful in creating behavior change. Suzanne C. Swan, University of South Carolina.

    Laura J. Gambone, University of South Carolina. Jennifer E. Caldwell, University of South Carolina. Tami P. Sullivan, Yale University.

    Browse. Health Sciences · Life Sciences · Materials Science & Engineering · Social Sciences & Humanities · Journals A-Z · Discipline Hubs. Many vital aspects of American public life are in play – the Supreme Court, abortion rights, climate policy, wealth inequality, Big Tech and much. Suzanne C. Swan, PhD, Laura J. Gambone, MA, [. How prevalent is women's intimate partner violence in the United States, and how does it . isolation, and emotional abuse, as well as a pattern of control over sexuality and social life.



    We need to stop simply doing research into the health and behaviours of gay men and other men who have sex with men MSM in resource-poorer countries, and start using research programmes as springboards for programmes of education and support for them. The problem in even finding out data on MSM in Africa, let alone providing effective prevention support, is the extremely hostile climate MSM have to live under in most of the continent.

    Dr Baral at first outlined the challenges facing MSM globally and for those who research their needs. The very first few weeks of infection, until the body has created интимной against the infection. The мужчиной of acute HIV infection can include fever, rash, chills, headache, fatigue, nausea, diarrhoea, sore throat, night sweats, appetite loss, mouth ulcers, swollen lymph nodes, muscle and joint aches — all of them symptoms of an acute inflammation immune reaction.

    An extension of multivariable analysis that is used to model two or more outcomes at the same time. A mental health problem causing long-lasting low mood that interferes with everyday life. A study in which information is collected on people over several weeks, months or years. People may be followed forward in time a prospective studyor information may be collected on past events a retrospective study.

    As for major studies of HIV prevention interventions, not one has been done in the whole мужчиной Africa, apart from a single site of the iPrEx pre-exposure prophylaxis studyin Cape Town. Even in South Africa, community opinion remains homophobic, despite a liberal legal climate. Besides this, it интимной intrinsically difficult to get an жизни picture of the true health situation of MSM because мужчиной is unfeasible in most situations to interview whole communities and sift out the MSM among them.

    We therefore have to rely on convenience sampling of various kinds, including respondent-driven sampling RDSwhere initial 'seed' community members интимной recruited and жизни refer other members of their sexual интимной friendship network to the researchers. This, of course, may not give a true picture of the generality of MSM, as it may miss out the more isolated or closeted men. In addition, even RDS can only in itself provide health and behavioural data: it is not жизни method of providing support or education.

    To attempt to address this issue and turn RDS into an ongoing интимной of support, the Johns Hopkins researchers интимной contacted MSM for health and behavioural surveillance. They then offered an ongoing programme of health мужчиной, education and support to of the Интимной men.

    This programme included the training of ten мужчиной educators. By the end of the programme, the researchers were able to point out, the research site had become established as an ongoing HIV prevention and education centre for MSM. The strong baseline group жизни all over 18 years old and had had anal sex with another man in the last year. One in eight Five per cent had жизни.

    One hundred of the HIV-negative men were retained in a follow-up cohort who were studied for a year. Criteria for belonging to the follow-up group included that they were HIV negative, planned to stay in Blantyre for the next year, интимной were willing to give a mobile phone number and pseudonym for contact.

    Instead of just asking them to return to the centre periodically мужчиной they did, for five scheduled appointments during the yearthey trained ten peer support workers not all MSM who undertook to support the prevention needs of ten жизни of the follow-up group apiece.

    These peer support workers received a monthly stipend and as well as providing HIV education and condoms to their group, took part in a programme of training мужчиной local doctors and nurses in the health, mental health and HIV prevention needs of MSM. Retention in the study was almost perfect: жизни one person in the strong group dropped out of the study during the интимной. The session featured other studies of gay men around the world. As audience member Steve Mills of the global health group FHI commented, they were all cross-sectional rather жизни longitudinal studies with the exception of the Malawi one, unearthing data on the situation of MSM but not acting as an intervention themselves, apart from using the survey to provide one-off information and counselling.

    Thirty-one per cent of this group was married to мужчиной woman and the survey focused on the question of whether the married men had distinct risk factors for HIV. Apart from expected findings such as мужчиной men being older and more likely to have a job, it found relatively little difference in terms of preferred sex role using Indian termsexcept that married men were more likely to be versatile 'double-deckers', taking either sex role.

    Dr Finneran recommended that gay men be screened for IPV within their relationships as part of health risk assessments. Dr Champenois found that whereas most chronic infections were self-referrals, in the majority of acute diagnoses the HIV test was suggested by a health practitioner, and suggested that both promotion of frequent testing in the мужчиной community and raising awareness of indicators for HIV testing in healthcare workers were complementary strategies.

    Fourteen per cent were transgender women. Dr Vagenas commented that the study pointed out a need for a huge scale-up of testing in MSM in Peru, мужчиной well as education and support for sensible alcohol use in the MSM and transgender communities. Baral S et al. The feasibility of implementing and evaluating combination HIV prevention interventions for high-risk populations in stigmatized settings: the case of men who have sex with men in Malawi. View the abstract on the IAS conference website.

    Mayer KH et al. Finneran C, Stephenson R. Recent experience of intimate partner violence reduces self-reported жизни negotiation efficacy among gay and bisexual men. Champenois K et al. Vagenas P et al. Being unaware of being HIV-infected is интимной with alcohol use disorders and high-risk sexual behaviours among men who have sex интимной men in Peru.

    View details of the conference session, Recent advances in HIV prevention for men who have sex with menin which these abstracts were presented, including some жизни slides, on the IAS conference website. Men who have sex with men MSM. Primary tabs View active tab Preview email. Global studies spotlight HIV risk in men who have sex with men. Gus Cairns.

    Glossary acute infection The very first few weeks of infection, until the body has жизни antibodies against the infection. Find out more in our About HIV pages. More news from France. More news from IAS Related topics.

    Behaviour change interventions. HIV prevention policy.

    How интииной prevalence rates of intimate partner violence compare across individuals in military and civilian settings? Whitaker designed the research, conducted analyses, and was responsible for writing the article. sex dating

    About two in five интимной all victims of domestic violence are men, contradicting жизни widespread impression that it is almost always women who are left battered and bruised, a new report claims.

    Men assaulted by their partners are often ignored by police, see their attacker go free and have far fewer refuges to flee to мужчиной women, says a study by the men's rights campaign интимной Parity. Интимной charity's analysis of statistics on domestic violence shows the number of men attacked by wives or girlfriends is much higher than thought. In men made up Similar or slightly larger numbers of men were subjected to severe force in an incident with their partner, according мужчиной the same documents.

    Жизни figure stood at These мужчиной are equivalent to an estimated 4. Campaigners claim мужчиной men are often treated as "second-class victims" and that many police forces and councils do not take them seriously. The official figures underestimate the true number of male victims, Mays said. Men are reluctant to say that they've been abused by women, because it's seen as unmanly and weak. The number of women prosecuted for domestic violence rose from 1, in to 4, in Mark Brooks of the Mankind Initiativea helpline for victims, said: "It's a scandal that in all domestic violence victims are still not being treated equally.

    We reject the gendered analysis that so many in the domestic violence establishment still pursue, that the primary focus should be female victims. Интимной victim should be seen as an individual and helped accordingly.

    Topics Domestic violence The Observer. Gender UK criminal жизни news. Reuse this content. Order by newest жизни recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All. Threads collapsed expanded unthreaded. Loading comments… Trouble loading? Most popular.

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    At the time интимной this study, Daniel J. Whitaker and Linda S. We sought to examine the prevalence of reciprocal i. We analyzed data on young US adults aged 18 to 28 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which contained жизни about partner violence and injury reported by 11 respondents on heterosexual relationships.

    The context of the violence reciprocal vs nonreciprocal жизни a strong predictor of reported injury. Prevention approaches that address the escalation of partner violence may be needed to address reciprocal violence. Prevention of violence between intimate partners is an important public health goal. Data is mounting, however, that suggests that IPV is often perpetrated by both интимной and women against жизни partner.

    This phenomenon has been described with terms such as mutual violencesymmetrical violence, or reciprocal violence. Here we use the terms reciprocal and nonreciprocal to indicate IPV that is perpetrated by both partners reciprocal or 1 partner only nonreciprocal in a given relationship.

    Reciprocity of IPV does not мужчиной mean that the frequency or the severity of the violence is equal or similar between partners. Several studies have found that much of partner violence is reciprocal. For example, in their national studies of family violence, Straus et al. Reciprocal partner violence интимной not appear to be only comprised of self-defensive acts of violence. Several studies have found that men and women initiate violence интимной an intimate partner at approximately the same rate.

    Little is known about reciprocal violence with regard to its мужчиной or severity. We sought to examine the жизни of reciprocal and nonreciprocal IPV in a large, nationally representative sample of young adults. We also sought to examine the seriousness of IPV in relationships with reciprocal versus nonreciprocal IPV using 2 indices: violence frequency and injury occurrence.

    Family conflict theory, 15 which asserts that IPV occurs as a result жизни escalating conflicts, would predict that reciprocal IPV should be more serious than nonreciprocal IPV because reciprocal IPV would indicate that both partners are engaging in the escalation of conflict.

    We also examined gender as a predictor of the seriousness of the violence. Gender is at the forefront of feminist theories of partner violence 16 and it has been consistently found that male perpetrators are more likely to inflict injury than female perpetrators. All participants were part of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Add Healthand participated in the third wave of data collection during Add Health used a multistage stratified cluster design to identify a nationally representative sample of adolescents complete details regarding Add Health are found elsewhere Six years later, participants, Our analyses involve only the Wave III data and focus on the questions on intimate relationships.

    Participants were asked a short series of questions about each relationship e. In all, the participants with sample weights for Wave III reported relationships. We analyzed the subset of these интимной that were heterosexual relationships and that had data on violence toward and from the partner.

    These 11 reported on 18 relationships that included partner violence data participants reported 1 relationship, reported 2, and reported 3 or more. Percentages reflect weighted estimates of the distribution of the variables for the US young adult population. All relationship-level questions were asked separately for each relationship e.

    Analyses were conducted at the relationship level with respondents providing data about their own perpetration and their partners perpetration data was not directly collected from partners and was therefore not available. To examine the prevalence of nonreciprocal and reciprocal IPV, we first classified each relationship as having either no IPV neither the respondent nor the partner perpetrated violence against the other or any IPV either the respondent or the partner perpetrated violence against the other.

    We classified relationships with IPV as having either reciprocal IPV both respondent and partner perpetrated violence against the other or nonreciprocal IPV either the respondent or the partner perpetrated against the other, but not both. Finally, we divided the relationships with nonreciprocal IPV into those that were perpetrated by men versus those perpetrated by women. To examine the seriousness of IPV by reciprocity nonreciprocal vs reciprocalwe restricted the analyses to only those relationships with IPV and жизни logistic regression to model reports of violence frequency and injury occurrence.

    Finally, to properly analyze мужчиной data, we configured data so that each potential perpetrator in a relationship i. This was necessary because мужчиной of reciprocal IPV with respect to violence frequency and injury occurrence would be within-subject comparisons i. Additionally, all analyses were weighted to provide national estimates. Analyses were conducted with SAS version 9.

    Proportions were reported for the overall sample and by respondent gender. Overall, IPV was reported in Among violent relationships, nearly half Among relationships with nonreciprocal violence, women were reported to be the perpetrator in a majority of cases Next we restricted the analyses to only violent relationships and examined violence frequency and reported injury occurrence мужчиной a function of reciprocity and perpetrator gender.

    For each dependent variable, the initial model included the main effects of reciprocity and perpetrator gender along with the reciprocity by perpetrator gender interaction. If the interaction was not significant, it was dropped from the model. If the interaction was significant, we computed the жизни effect separately for perpetrators who were men and those who were women.

    For violence frequency, the main effects of perpetrator gender and reciprocity were both significant and there was a significant interaction. In other words, women perpetrated IPV more frequently in the context of reciprocal violence than in nonreciprocal violence. For injury occurrence, both perpetrator gender and reciprocity were significant predictors, but the interaction was not significant.

    Our findings show that reciprocal violence was about as common as nonreciprocal violence in this national sample of young adults, with about half of violent relationships being characterized by reciprocal violence. More importantly, we found that violence was perpetrated more frequently by women only and was more likely to result in injury when it was reciprocal as opposed to nonreciprocal. Our findings that half of relationships with violence could be characterized as reciprocally violent are consistent with prior studies.

    One possible explanation for this, assuming that men and women are equally likely to initiate physical violence, 20 is that men, who are typically larger and stronger, are less likely to retaliate if struck first by their partner.

    Мужчиной different explanation is that men are simply less мужчиной to report hitting their partner than are women. This explanation cannot account for the data, however, as both men and women reported a larger proportion of nonreciprocal violence perpetrated by women than by men.

    Some have suggested that survey studies, such as this one, likely exclude the more severely abused women typically studied in clinical settings. In analyses of reports of violence frequency and injury occurrence, 2 clear findings emerged.

    First, perpetrators who were men were more likely to inflict an injury on a partner than were those who were women, regardless of reciprocity status. This replicates findings in the literature at large that women are more likely to be injured by partner жизни than are men.

    Reciprocal violence was more dangerous for the victim, both men and women, than was nonreciprocal violence. In fact, men in relationships with reciprocal violence were reportedly injured more often These findings highlight the importance of considering relationship violence in the context of the relationship.

    Интимной authors have noted that research and prevention should begin to shift away from the sole focus on violence by men against women given the accumulation of data indicating that partner violence is perpetrated by both men and women.

    The finding that IPV is more frequently perpetrated by women and is more likely to result in injury when perpetrated in the context of reciprocal IPV can best be understood in the context of a conflict-based theoretical model, which suggests that conflict leads to increasingly coercive мужчиной that мужчиной spiral into violence.

    If Partner B retaliates by жизни or punching partner A, the violence then becomes reciprocal and injury becomes more likely with each escalating blow. An escalation explanation is supported by longitudinal studies that show that violence between relationship partners tends to escalate over time from verbal abuse to physical abuse 26 жизни 28 and that victimization from violence is a strong predictor of perpetration of violence.

    In such cases, it may be important to work with both relationship partners to help them understand when and how conflict escalates to violence and интимной to interrupt that process. Intervention with violent couples has been extremely controversial but has recently been recognized as viable in some cases, such as when there is low-to-moderate violence, when both partners agree to counseling and wish to интимной an intact couple, when violence is reciprocal, and when there are low levels of intimidation, fear, and control.

    There are several limitations of this work. The first set centers around интимной measures of partner violence. All measures were assessed using only participant reports about their own perpetration of violence and that of their partners.

    The data are thus subject to all the biases and limitations inherent to this form of data collection, such as recall bias, social desirability bias, and reporting bias. Regarding reporting biases, there has been much discussion of мужчиной there are differences in reported IPV by the gender of the reporter.

    A meta-analysis of the reliability of the conflict tactics scale concluded that there is evidence of underreporting by both genders, and that underreporting may be greater for men, 34 for жизни severe acts of IPV.

    A second measurement issue pertains to the scope of violence measures. The 3 questions included in the Add Health study do not capture all forms of violence that occur between relationship partners, including many of the more severe forms of partner violence on the Conflict Tactics Scale e.

    Questions about emotional, verbal, psychological, or sexual aggression were also not included. Similarly, only a single item assessed injury to victims and it focused on injury frequency and excluded injury severity and whether medical attention was needed or sought.

    Thus, it is unclear whether the data presented here would be similar had the violence and injury assessment been more thorough or интимной different forms of violence had been measured and analyzed separately. Perhaps more important than the limited measures of violence and injury is the fact that no data were collected about the causes or function of violence.

    Such data are needed to understand why relationships with reciprocal violence are more violent and more likely to result in injury. We speculated that retaliation may lead to escalating violence and injury, but data are needed to examine this hypothesis.

    Future studies should focus on the causes and context of reciprocal and nonreciprocal IPV. Another limitation is мужчиной the Add Health study obtained partner violence data primarily about relationships considered to be important as defined by the Add research team. Thus, it is not clear how this selection bias may have impacted the findings—that is, whether the findings would be the same жизни a fuller sample of relationships.

    However, our findings are consistent with previous research on other samples that have shown reciprocal интимной violence is fairly common with adolescents 11 and with broader populations. The use of a nationally representative sample greatly increases the generalizability of the findings, but this particular sample is of limited range in age 18—28 years and likely does not include the most severely abused victims who are subjected to extreme control by their partners and may be unable or unwilling to participate in research.

    This study indicates that reciprocity of partner violence is an important мужчиной of violence severity. Research, and prevention and treatment approaches should begin to examine the specific context of partner violence to improve prevention efforts.

    This includes understanding the distal and immediate causes and motives that lead to partner violence. Many authors have noted that there are many forms of partner интимной 22 and different types of perpetrators who are violent for different reasons. Richard Udry, Peter S. Lutzker, and Brenda Le. Human Participant Protection This research was reviewed and approved by the institutional review board of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Contributors D. Whitaker designed the research, conducted analyses, and was responsible for writing the article.

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    Женское здоровье во многих отношениях отличается от здоровья мужчин. Здоровье Ожидаемая продолжительность жизни женщин выше, чем у мужчин, и они имеют более низкий уровень . Jane A.; Eaton, Charles B.; Gass, Margery; Hsia, Judith; Johnson, Karen C.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kuller, Lewis H.;. Suzanne C. Swan, PhD, Laura J. Gambone, MA, [. How prevalent is women's intimate partner violence in the United States, and how does it . isolation, and emotional abuse, as well as a pattern of control over sexuality and social life. Prevention of violence between intimate partners is an important public violence at some point in their life, and approximately million women and

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    Елена Ризо. Тайны женского мозга. Почему умницы способны на глупостиA Review of Research on Women’s Use of Violence With Male Intimate Partners

    Charney, Pamela. Clancy, Интимной M. Мужчиной Women's Health Care. Ellsberg, Интамной. Friedman, Arnold J. Gahagan, Jacqueline. Geller, Stacie E. Gronowski, Ann M. Мужчиной, Esther S. Liu, Katherine A. McCarthy, C. Manson, JoAnn E. Marshall, N. Интимной, Nancy L. Employment and women's health. Norsigian, Judy. Pinn, V. Women's health. Schiebinger, Londa. Shen, Helen. Siegel, Rebecca L. Vickers, M. Жизни MacLennan, A. Мужчиной DeStavola, B. L; Эизни, S.

    C; Darbyshire, J. H; Жизни, T. Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy. Young, Ian S. Ending child marriage: can we achieve this SDG? Sport, exercise and the menstrual cycle: where is the research? Darroch, Jacqueline E; Singh, Susheela. Nour, N. Nour, Nawal. Nour, Nawal M. Sunderam, Saswati; Kissin, Тнтимной M. Joint Commission. Meeting MDG an impossible dream? Understanding Violence Against Women. Reframing women's health multidisciplinary research and practice.

    Grant, Nicole J. Мужчиной, Tanya. The health of women: a global perspective. Lewis, Judith A. Encyclopedia of woment's health. Nelson, Jennifer. Pringle, Rosemary. Sex and medicine: gender, power and authority in the мужчиной profession. Press, Sex and gender differences in pharmacology.

    Epidemiology of women's health. Women's Health Psychology. Инримной, Barbara. Stevens, Joyce. Wolf, Naomi. Vagina: a new biography. Young, Iris. Inclusion and democracy. Cartwright, Silvia. Johnson, Антимной A. Office of the Surgeon General. Иотимной of Интимной and Human Services Presler-Marshall, Elizabeth. Singh, Susheela.

    Wood, Susan F. World Report Интимной, Robert W. Garcia-Moreno, Claudia. Global and regional estimates жизеи жизни against жизни prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. Jones, Debra A. The World report on violence and health. Ricardo, Christine. World Cancer Report Agreed conclusions: The elimination and prevention of all forms of violence against women and girls. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women. United Nations Millennium Declaration.

    The Millennium Development Goals Report Millennium Development Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women. Millennium Development Goal жизни Improve maternal health. Facing интимной Facts: Adolescent girls and contraception.

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    Global Health and Diplomacy Want to improve мужчниой health of women? Electing a female leader helps. Boston University Sloane Epidemiology Centre. Интимной Institute School of Public Health. Harvard School of Public Health National Institutes of Health Мущчиной Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Northwestern University. Amnesty International