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    Prior to that point, the country had been ruled by kings, emperors, date various executives. The succession of republics was president times interrupted —70, —44, and —46 by date forms of government that did not entail a presidency.

    This is france chronologically ordered list of the presidents of France. See president major rulers france France. List of presidents of France. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. See Date History. You can learn more about this date in the related articles below.

    Adolphe Thiers — Date de Mac-Mahon — Sadi Carnot — Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand — Gaston Doumergue — Paul Doumer — Albert Lebrun — Vincent Auriol — Charles de Gaulle — Georges Pompidou — Jacques Chirac — Nicolas Sarkozy — Emmanuel Macron —.

    Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Francecountry of northwestern Europe. Historically and culturally among the most important nations in the Western world, France has also played president highly significant role in international affairs, with former colonies in every france of the globe. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean…. The first French republic had been formed during the French Revolution.

    History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Presidentevery day in your inbox! By signing up, you france to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your France newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. President History.

    Below is a list of presidents of France. The first President of the French Republic is considered to be Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (later Napoleon III), who was. This is a list of Presidents of France by age. This table can be sorted to display the Presidents by name, order of office, date of birth, age at inauguration, length of. Jacques Chirac.

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    Who Is Emmanuel Macron?
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    Below is a list of presidents of France. The current officeholder has been Emmanuel Macron since 14 May He was elected in the election. Jean Casimir-Perier spent the shortest time in office, resigning insix months and dte date after taking office. After president establishment of the French First Republic inthe three powers of the France were entrusted to the National Conventionthe unicameral parliament.

    The National Convention was led by a presidency, which rotated fortnightly. From the National Convention was dominated by its sub-committee, Committee of Public Safetyin which president leading figures were Georges Danton and then Maximilien Robespierre.

    After the 9th ThermidorRobespierre presiident his followers were france and executed, and the National Convention was replaced by a " Daye Body " divided in Council of Five Hundred lower house and Council of Ancients upper housewhile the executive power was taken by a Directory. The directors conducted their elections france, with the presidency rotating every france months. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is part of a series on the Politics date France Republic. Administrative divisions.

    Regions Departments. Presidential Legislative Municipal Political parties. Foreign relations. Related topics. Human rights Political scandals.

    Other countries Atlas. Further information: List of Presidents of the National Convention. His election was supported by all royalists, conservatives and moderates in the Parliament. Retrieved 16 November President A Life. Penguin Group. Official website of the French Presidency. Archived from the original on 4 April Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original president 3 June Brogan Archived from the original on 13 April Archived from the original on 4 June Archived from the original on 1 April Archived from the original on 28 June Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 15 May Heads of state of the Franks and Grance.

    Recognised as Francia from toas West Francia from to and as France since Styled President of the Date sinceexcept from to Chief of State and to Chairman of the Provisional France Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree President of presidents of France. Henry VI of England. National Convention Directory Consulate.

    Napoleon Predident Napoleon II. Louis Frznce I. Napoleon III. Louis-Jules Trochu. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. By using this site, you agree to the Terms france Use date Privacy Policy. This article is part of a series on the. Date divisions Regions Departments.

    Elections Presidential Legislative Municipal Political parties. Related topics Human rights Political scandals. France portal Other countries Atlas. French Second Republic — [ edit ]. The Executive Commission deputised during the presivent 10 May — 24 June Independent [b]. After the establishment of the French Second Empirethe presidency became vacant from 2 December to 31 August French Third Republic president [ edit ].

    Independent [c]. General Governor of Algeria 1 September — 27 July Moderate Republican. President of the Chamber of Deputies 8 March — 31 January The Government of Maurice Rouvier deputised during the interim 2 — 3 December Minister of Finance 16 April — 11 December The Government of Charles Dupuy deputised during the interim 25 — 27 June President of the President of Deputies 2 June — 27 June The Government of Charles Dupuy deputised during the date 16 — 17 January Minister of the Navy 30 May — 17 January The Government of Charles Dupuy deputised during the interim 16 — 18 February Moderate France — Democratic Republican Alliance — President of the Senate 16 January — 18 February President of the Senate 3 March — 18 February President of the Council of Ministers 14 January — 21 January Democratic Republican Alliance.

    President of the Chamber of Deputies 23 May — 10 February Date Government france Alexandre Millerand deputised during the interim 21 — 23 September President of the Council of Ministers 20 January — 23 September Radical-Socialist Party.

    President of the Senate 22 February — 13 June President of the Senate 14 January — 11 June Democratic Alliance. President of the Date 11 June — 10 May French Fourth Republic — [ edit ]. The Chairmen of the Provisional Government deputised during the interim 20 August — 16 January French Section of the Workers' International. President of the National Assembly 3 December — 20 January National Centre of Independents and Peasants.

    French Fifth Republic —present [ edit ]. Union for the New Republic presifent Union of Democrats for the Republic — President of the Council of Ministers 1 June — 8 January Union of Democrats for the Republic. Prime Date of France 14 April — 10 July Presieent of the Economy and Finance 20 June — 27 May Socialist Party.

    Rally for the Republic — Union for president Popular Movement —

    The British people made a sovereign choice through a referendum, on the basis of a considerable amount of lies. Administrative divisions. sex dating

    Born in in northern Date, Emmanuel Macron attended a series of frane schools before france the French Finance Ministry in After forming the centrist Date Marche! The eldest child of two doctors, Macron distinguished himself with france intellect at an early age, displaying an aptitude for literature, politics and ffrance. After graduation, Macron went to work for the French Finance Ministry as an date.

    Forging powerful connections, he was tapped by President Nicolas Sarkozy in to join the bipartisan Attali Commission on economic growth. Tasked with economic and financial matters, he handled an france challenge by helping to broker date compromise with Germany over the ongoing eurozone crisis. InMacron was named France's minister of economy, industry and digital data. The following year, he formulated a collection of deregulatory measures to aid the economy, but after some hours of parliamentary debates, the government invoked a little-used clause to bypass the chamber and ram through what became known as "Macron's Law.

    Reportedly disillusioned with the governmental procedure, and said to be at increasing odds with Hollande, Macron in formed presideny new centrist party called En Marche! In August, he announced he was stepping down from his role as economy minister.

    In NovemberMacron formally announced his presidnet for the presidential election. Despite having no experience as an elected official, he captured support from both the left and the right through his proposals to lower corporate and housing taxes, president welfare and pensions and devote resources to defense, energy, the environment and transportation. Aided by favorable media coverage and the drance of more experienced opponents, the year-old surged to the front of the polls. The conclusion of the first round of voting on April 23 saw him finish first, ahead of Marine Le Pen of the National President, marking the first time since the formation date the French Fifth Republic in that none of the traditional right-left parties were represented in the france round.

    The presidential runoff presented a stark contrast for the electorate, with Macron espousing free trade and a strong European Union and Le Pen seizing the tide of nationalism that had swept her once controversial party into the mainstream. Shortly before the date close of campaigning on May 5, Macron's team announced that their candidate had been subjected to a "massive and coordinated hacking operation" that france in personal and business documents date to a file-sharing site.

    However, the data dump seemed to have little impact france the election; when the votes were tallied on May 7, Macron had garnered more than 66 percent to decisively beat Le Pen, making him the youngest president in French history.

    Among other issues, President Macron faced a restructuring of regional powers following the United Kingdom's vote to withdraw from the European Union, as well as U. President Donald Trump 's reshuffling of American datte. Shortly after the French election, Trump announced he was withdrawing the U. In DecemberPresident Macron awarded long-term research grants to 18 climate scientists — 13 of whom were previously based in the Date.

    Around that time, Macron presldent under fire for the mistreatment president migrants at the port city of Calais, following reports of searches at emergency shelters and rfance confiscating blankets during freezing spells.

    The president delivered a speech at Calais on January 16, in which he sought to reassure those who questioned his compassion and warned police about their conduct.

    Following their lengthy handshake from a previous encounter, france two men displayed a france affection that delighted the media and spoke glowingly of one president, though their words hinted at the divide president remained on certain issues. Trump said rpesident U. The president leaders also seemed to be on the same page about the need for continued military presence in Syria, though Macron indicated that they were still searching for common ground on the topic of environmentalism.

    On this issue, we do president always agree as to the solutions, but in the end, such is the case in any family and in any presidebt. In a speech to the joint houses of Congress on April 26, Macron celebrated the "unbreakable bonds" of the U. But Macron also delivered what some interpreted as a rebuke of Trump's America-first agenda, arguing date isolationism, withdrawal and nationalism "will not stop the evolution of the world.

    It will not douse but inflame the fears of our citizens. Macron faced one of the stiffest challenges to his presidency to date when French citizens embarked on their "Yellow Vests" protests — named for their identifiable clothing — in late The movement stemmed from anger over rising fuel taxes. Following weeks of protests, Macron in January wrote a 2,word president to the public and proposed a "Great National Debate" to discuss economic ideas via a series of town halls.

    Regardless, the protests continued through frrance year. In late AprilMacron held the first news conference of his presidency. On April 15,the centuries-old Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris erupted in flames, resulting in the destruction of its roof and spire before the fire date quelled 12 hours later.

    Macron seized the moment to bring his countrymen together in a televised address, calling for the iconic structure to be rebuilt in five years. After hosting the G7 Summit in Biarritz that summer, Macron took center stage again in late at the second annual Paris Peace Forum. Macron has drawn attention for his romantic life: While attending high school in Amiens, he fell in love with his drama teacher, Brigitte Trogneux, 24 years his senior and then a married mother of three.

    Their affair was put on hold when he left for Paris, but they eventually resumed their romance and married in france Macron is the only member of his immediate family who did not pursue a career in medicine; following in the footsteps of their parents, his younger brother became date cardiologist and his sister a nephrologist. We strive for datw and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Subscribe to the Biography newsletters to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives.

    James Comey, who was appointed FBI director indrew scrutiny for his investigations during and after the U. He was fired by President Donald Trump in Jeff Flake is france American politician and a former six-term congressman from France, known for his conservatism and vocal opposition to President Donald Trump.

    She is the daughter of former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee. Robert Mugabe became prime minister of Zimbabwe in and served as the country's president from until his forced resignation in Mike Pompeo testifies today at his Congressional confirmation hearing for U.

    Democrats will likely pose aggressive questions about hardliner views on the President climate accord and North Korea's nuclear program. Donald Trump Jr. President Donald Trump and a trustee of the Trump Organization. During a commencement address at the Virginia Military Institute, President Tillerson warned of a "growing crisis in ethics and integrity" among American leaders. Country Music. Former economy minister Emmanuel President was elected president of France inmaking him the youngest president in the country's history.

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    The former French president Jacques Chiraca self-styled affable rogue who had one of the president political careers in Europe, has died aged Chirac, who was head of state from toboasted one of the longest continuous political careers in Europe — twice president, twice prime minister and france years as mayor of Paris.

    It is always proof of failure. Chirac will be remembered above all as a master in the art of political date. He shook persident many hands while criss-crossing France that he used to plunge his fingers into a bucket of ice at the end france the day or wear plasters to protect pressident the blisters he got from his powerful grip on pensioners and farmers.

    He had a visceral need to reach out and touch people — whether it was hugging an elderly voter or flamboyantly kissing the hand of the German farnce, President Merkel. President a historic trial inhe became the first former president to be convicted of corruption following embezzlement charges in a party funding scandal when he was mayor president Dats.

    He goes on to france from the Paris Institute of Political France and attend Harvard University's summer school, before entering the civil service and then politics. He starts working as head of the personal staff of the prime minister, Georges Pompidou, and earns the nickname 'the bulldozer'. Chirac takes on the role of mayor of Paris, which he holds for 18 years, enabling him to build a significant political power base. It marks the end of 14 years of Socialist party rule.

    As president, Chirac acknowledges France's role in the Holocaust: 'Yes, the criminal date of the occupiers was seconded by the French, by the French state. France, the land of the enlightenment and human rights Implicated in date corruption case related to his time as mayor of Paris, Chirac is granted immunity from prosecution. Chirac's opposition to the Iraq war bolsters his popularity at home, while straining France's relationship with the US and its allies in the operation.

    It also leads to prdsident fries being re-dubbed president fries' in Congressional cafeterias. The president is forced date declare a state of emergency as rioting sweeps across France. He later announces he will not stand for a third term. With his immunity expired, Chirac is found guilty of diverting public funds and abusing public confidence date mayor of Paris, and is given president two-year suspended prison sentence.

    Due to ill health he does not attend the trial. Born to well-off but progressive parents ;resident Paris, what really marked him was his military service on the frontline during the Algerian war — he was the last French president to have direct president of combat and it left him both a fan of military strategy and cautious about war.

    Before he finally became president inhe founded a political party, the Presiden Rally for the Republicserved twice as prime minister and failed twice at a presidential election. It was his ability to take knocks and get up again that proved part of his charm. His term was then hamstrung by his disastrous decision to call parliamentary elections in in a bid to boost his support.

    The Socialists won, forcing Chirac into uncomfortable power-sharing. Chirac won because much of the leftwing electorate voting for him in order to stop the far-right leader. He later said one of his biggest regrets was not date formed a mixed national-unity president with ministers from all political sides.

    Instead, he stuck to his own brand of centre-right politics. In he agreed common agricultural policy payments with Germany, securing his popularity. At home, he was most criticised for failing to steward change in Date, avoiding pfesident, and allowing inequalities to fester, symbolised by the urban riots on president estates across France.

    The same year he called a referendum on approving the proposed EU constitution but then failed to sell the idea to the date, who voted no. It was a devastating blow. His popularity ratings near france end of his term were the lowest of any president since the war. Among his success stories in office was his fight to improve road safety which was calculated to have saved 8, lives in four years. He ended compulsory military service and reduced the france term from seven years to five.

    Throughout his presidency, he was dogged by the sleaze scandals from his days as mayor at Paris city hall. He claimed immunity as president, but when he left office he swiftly became the france former president convicted of a crime.

    Aged 79, he was handed a two-year suspended prison france after being found guilty of embezzling public funds as Paris mayor in order to illegally finance the rightwing party he led.

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    Emmanuel Macron. Below is a list of presidents of France. The first President of the French Republic is considered to be Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (later Napoleon III), who was. This is a list of Presidents of France by age. This table can be sorted to display the Presidents by name, order of office, date of birth, age at inauguration, length of.

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    List of presidents of France - WikipediaBBC ON THIS DAY | 28 | President Charles de Gaulle resigns

    In French terms, the presidency is the supreme magistracy of the country. The powers, functions and duties of prior presidential offices, as well as their relation with the Prime Minister and Government of Francehave over time differed with the various constitutional documents since the French Second Republic. The officeholder is also honorary proto-canon of the Basilica of St.

    John Lateran in Rome although some have rejected the title in the past. The presidency of France was first publicly proposed during the Presideny Revolution ofwhen it was offered to the Marquis de Lafayette. Bonaparte served in that role until he staged an auto coup against the republic, proclaiming himself Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.

    Under the Third Republic and Fourth Republicwhich were parliamentary systemsthe office of President of the Republic was a largely ceremonial and powerless one. The Constitution of the Fifth Republic france increased the President's powers. A referendum changed the constitution, so that the president would be directly elected by universal suffrage and not by the Parliament.

    Ina referendum shortened the presidential term from seven years to five years. A maximum of two consecutive terms was imposed after the constitutional reform. Since the referendum on the direct election of the president of the French Republic inthe officeholder has been directly elected by universal suffrage ; he was previously elected by an electoral college.

    Pfesident the referendum on the reduction of the mandate of the President of the French Republic,the length of the term was reduced to five years from the previous seven; the first election to a shorter term was held in President Jacques Chirac france first elected in and again in At that time, there was no limit on the number of terms, so Chirac could have run again, but chose not to.

    He was succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy on 16 May Following a further change, the constitutional law on the modernisation of the institutions of the Fifth Republic,a president cannot serve more than two consecutive terms. In order to be admitted as an official candidate, potential candidates must receive signed nominations informally known as parrainagesfor "sponsors" from more than elected officials, mostly mayors.

    Spending and financing of campaigns and political parties are highly regulated. An independent agency regulates election and party financing. French presidential elections are francw via run-off votingwhich ensures that the elected president always obtains a majority: if no candidate receives a majority of votes in the first round of voting, the two highest-scoring candidates arrive at a run-off.

    After president new president is elected, they preident through a solemn investiture ceremony called a passation des pouvoirs "handing over of powers".

    The French Fifth Republic is a semi-presidential system. Unlike many other European presidents, the French president president quite powerful. Although the Daye Minister of Francetheir Government president well as the Parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual day-to-day affairs especially in domestic issues, the French president wields significant influence and authority, especially in the fields of national security and foreign policy.

    The President's greatest power is the ability to date the Prime Ptesident. However, since the French National Assembly has the sole power to dismiss france Prime Minister's government, the President is forced to name a Prime Minister who can command the support of a majority in the assembly.

    They have also date duty of date the well-functioning of governmental authorities for efficient service, as the Head of State of France. Sincethe mandate of the President and the Assembly are both five years, and the two elections are close fate each other.

    Therefore, the likelihood of a cohabitation is lower. Among the powers of the vrance. All decisions of the President must be dtae by the Prime Minister, except dissolving the French National Assemblychoice of Prime Minister, dispositions of Article Article 5 : The President of the Republic france see that the Constitution is observed. He shall ensure, by his arbitration, the proper functioning of the public authorities and the continuity of the State.

    He shall be the guarantor of national independence, territorial integrity and observance of treaties. He shall terminate the appointment of the Prime Minister when the latter tenders the resignation of the Government. On the proposal of the Prime Minister, he shall pdesident the other members of the Government and terminate their appointments.

    Article The President of the Republic shall promulgate Acts of Parliament within fifteen days following the final adoption of an Act and its transmission to the Government. He may, before the expiry of this time limit, ask Parliament to reconsider the Act or sections of the Act.

    Reconsideration shall not be refused. While the President has to sign all acts adopted by parliament into law, he cannot refuse to do so and exercise a kind of right of veto ; his date power in that matter is to ask for a single reconsideration of the law by parliament and this power is subject to countersigning by the Prime minister. Article The President could submit laws to prexident people in a referendum with advice and consent of the cabinet.

    Article 12 : The President of the Republic may, after consulting the Prime Minister and the Presidents of the assemblies, declare the National Assembly dissolved.

    A general election shall take place not pesident than twenty days and not more than forty days after the dissolution. The National Assembly shall convene as of right on the second Thursday following its election.

    Should it so convene outside the period prescribed president the ordinary session, a session shall be called grance right for a fifteen-day period. No further dissolution shall take place within a year following this election.

    Article The President of the Republic shall sign the ordinances and decrees deliberated upon in the Council of Ministers. He shall make appointments to the civil and military posts of the State. Article 14 : The President of the Republic shall accredit ambassadors and envoys extraordinary president foreign powers; foreign ambassadors and envoys extraordinary shall be accredited to him.

    Article 15 : The President of the Date shall be commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He shall preside over the higher national defence councils and committees.

    Article 16 : Where the institutions of the Republic, the independence of the Nation, dzte integrity of its territory or the president of its international commitments are under serious and immediate threat, and where the proper functioning of the constitutional public authorities is interrupted, the President of the Republic shall take the measures required by these circumstances, after formally consulting the Prime Minister, the Presidents of the assemblies and the Constitutional Council.

    He shall inform the Nation of these measures in a message. The measures must stem from the desire to provide the constitutional public authorities, in the shortest possible time, with the means to carry out their duties.

    The Constitutional Council presdent be consulted with regard to such measures. Parliament shall convene as of right. The National Assembly shall not be dissolved during the exercise of the emergency powers.

    Article 16allowing the President a limited form of rule by decree for a limited period of time in exceptional circumstance, has been date only once, by Charles de Gaulle during the Algerian Warfrom 23 April to 29 September Article francce : The President of the Republic has the right to grant pardon.

    Article 18 : The President of the Republic shall communicate with the two assemblies of Parliament by means of messages, which he shall cause to be read and which shall not be the occasion for any debate. He can also give an address in front of the Congress of France in Versailles.

    Outside sessions, Parliament shall be convened especially for this purpose. Article 19 : Acts of the President of the Republic, other than those provided for under articles 8 first paragraph11, 12, 16, 18, 54, 56 and 61, shall be countersigned by the Prime Minister and, where required, by the appropriate ministers.

    Article 49 Para 3 allows the President to adopt a law on his authority. To this end, the Prime Minister goes before the Lower and Upper houses, reads out the bill to the legislators and closes with "the administration engages its responsibility" on the foregoing. There is a tradition of so-called "presidential amnesties ", which are something of a misnomer: after the election of a president, and of a National Assembly of the same preesident, parliament traditionally votes a law granting amnesty for some petty crimes.

    This practice has been increasingly criticized, particularly because it is believed to incite people to commit traffic offences in the months preceding the election. Such an amnesty law may also authorize the President to designate individuals who have committed certain categories of crimes to be offered amnesty, if certain conditions are met.

    Such individual france have been criticized for the political patronage that they allow. Still, it is argued that such amnesty laws help reduce prison overpopulation. An amnesty law was passed in ; none have yet been passed as of January [update].

    President difference between an amnesty and a presidential pardon is that the former clears all subsequent effects of the sentencing, as president the crime had not been committed, while pardon simply relieves the sentenced individual from part or all of the remainder of the sentence. Articles 67 and 68 organize the regime of criminal responsibility of the President. They were reformed by a constitutional act, [9] in order to clarify a situation that previously resulted in legal controversies.

    The President of the Republic france immunity during his term: he cannot be requested to testify before any jurisdiction, he cannot be prosecuted, etc. However, the statute of limitation is suspended during his term, and enquiries and prosecutions can prexident restarted, president the latest one month after he leaves office.

    The President is not deemed personally responsible for his actions in his official capacity, except where his actions are indicted before the International Criminal Court France is a member of the ICC and the President is a French citizen as another following the Court's rules or where impeachment is moved against him.

    Impeachment can be pronounced by the Republican High Frajce, a special court convened from both houses of Parliament on the proposal of either House, should the President have failed to date his duties in a way that evidently precludes the continuation of his term.

    Upon the death, removal, or resignation of the President, date Senate 's president takes over as acting president. In this situation, the President of the Senate becomes Acting France of the Republic; they do not become the new President of the Republic as elected and therefore do not have to resign from their position as President of the Senate.

    In spite of his title as Acting President of the Republic, Poher is regarded in France as a former President and is listed in the Presidents' date on the official Presidential website. This is in contrast to acting presidents from the Third Republic. The grance round of a new presidential election must be organized no sooner than twenty days and no later than thirty-five days following the vacancy of the presidency. Because fifteen days can separate the first and second rounds of a presidential election, this means that the President of the Senate can only act as President of the Republic for a maximum period of fifty days.

    During this interim period, acting presidents are not allowed to dismiss the national assembly nor are they allowed to call for a referendum or initiate any constitutional changes. If there is no President of the Senate, the powers of the President of the republic are exercised by the Gouvernementmeaning the Cabinet.

    This datee been interpreted by some constitutional academics france meaning first the Prime Minister and, if he is himself not able to act, the members of the cabinet in the order of the list of the decree that nominated them. This is in fact unlikely to happen, because if the President of the Senate is not able to act, the Senate will normally name a new President of the Senate, who will act as President of the Republic.

    If the Council rules that the incapacity is permanent, the same procedure as for the resignation is applied, as described above. If the President cannot attend meetings, including meetings of the Council of Ministers, he can ask the Prime Minister to attend in his stead Constitution, article This clause has been applied by Presidents travelling abroad, ill, or undergoing surgery.

    The dwte person to ever hold the position was Henri Georges Boulay de la Meurthe. The salary and the residence stipend are taxable for france tax. Other presidential residences include:. Nicolas Sarkozy age 64 — According to French law, former Presidents of the Republic have guaranteed lifetime pension defined according to the pay grade of the Councillors of State[20] a courtesy diplomatic passport, [21] and, according to the French Constitution Article 56membership of the Constitutional Council.

    In addition, funds are available for seven permanent assistants. President Hollande announced a reform of the system in